Mass trapping of Western Flower Thrips

RIPM’s Expert

Trial data & Research

Choosing the right products

Pest information

Overview

Throughout the years Russell IPM along with various academic partners have carried extensive research into the mass trapping of Western Flow Thrips (Frankliniella Occidentalis).

The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers.

Citation: Sampson C, Kirk WDJ (2013) Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry. PLoS ONE 8(11): e80787. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080787

Editor: Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Rutgers University, United States of America Received June 19, 2013; Accepted October 3, 2013; Published November 25, 2013

Copyright: ß 2013 Sampson, Kirk. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Western Flower Thrips

Clare comments in regards to the research carried out on the mass trapping of thrips

[cl-review quote=”Growers’ return on investment increased by £2,000/ha after using traps, including the cost of the traps and their application” author=”Dr Clare Sampson” occupation=”Technical Director, Russell IPM Ltd” type=”quote” layout=”clean”][cl-review quote=”After talking part in farm trials testing the blue Optiroll from Russell IPM in 2012, I have used the traps routinely on Everbearer strawberries. Using the rolls, in conjunction with programmed applications of N. cucumbers throughout the season, has resulted in no fruit being lost to WFT damage.” author=”Timothy Busby” occupation=”Littywood Farm” type=”quote” layout=”clean”]
[cl-review quote=”Combining predators with traps has been very succesful in controlling thrips. We have had no crop loss due to thrips in newly planted fields and minimal loss at the end of the season on a replanted 2nd year field. The cost of the programme is less than one week’s loos of production.” author=”Simon Clarke” occupation=”Manor Farm” type=”quote” layout=”clean”]

Traps reduce thrips numbers

  • No traps
  • Optiroll
  • Optiroll Super +
  • Over 50% reduction of thrips populations with traps
  • Compatible with bumble-bee pollination and thrips bio-control
  • Combining traps with Neoseiulus cucumbers brought thrips numbers below damaging levels

Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

Biology

Thrips have six main life stages which includes the egg, two larval, prepupal, pupal and adult stages. Eggs are laid on the underside of leaves, flower structures or fruit. In some cases this can result in wart-like growths but in others it is undetectable.

Larvae mature through two instars in concealed and well-protected plant parts such as within flower petals or under the calyx of fruits. In heavy infestations the larval will become mobile as they attempt to nourish upon all parts of the plant that are above ground. Most thrips, including western flower thrips, fall to the ground in order to pupate.

Finally, the adult thrips will emerge with slender and fringed wings in order to take flight and seek a partner for reproduction.

Nature of Damage

Western flower thrips feeding often results in severly damaged crops. Growers may notice visible signs of damage such as bud and fruit deformities and a blackening of the skin. Female Thrips lay their eggs on crops and fruits, resulting in small discolorations surrounded by white rings. Thrip feeding will also affect the appearance of flowers.

The action of feeding enables entry of bacteria and fungi resulting in thrips being responsible for the spread of a number of plant diseases,  including the tomato spotted wilt virus and the necrotic spot virus.

Monitoring

Installation of blue sticky traps such as Optiroll sticky roller traps and Impact Blue boards from Russell IPM can provide a simple and effective monitoring system for the western flower thrips.

Find out more

Clare Sampson1,3 · Jude Bennison2 · William D. J. Kirk1

Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 19 August 2019 / Accepted: 26 September 2019 © The Author(s) 2019

Abstract

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major pest of semi-protected strawberry crops in the UK. These crops are grown outdoors but sheltered by clear polythene tunnels during the growing season from about April to October. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether F. occidentalis overwinters in strawberry crops in central England, where overwintering in outdoor crops has not previously been demonstrated and (2) to test whether overwintering affects the thrips population during the following season. F. occidentalis was found breeding on several crop weeds that often flower throughout the year, including common chickweed (Stellaria media), groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). F. occidentalis female adults were found throughout the winter in flowers of these weeds and caught every month on blue sticky traps. Transparent emergence traps placed over various locations in a second- year crop in March caught adult thrips over the following month, showing that thrips survived within the crop. Second-year strawberry crops had earlier infestations and significantly more F. occidentalis adults per flower than nearby first-year crops at the start of the season, indicating that thrips that overwinter in and around retained crops contribute to pest build-up in the following season. Control of overwintering F. occidentalis after the end of first-year cropping before second-year cropping, or growing crops for only 1 year, is a potential strategy to improve thrips management in strawberry. The survival of F. occidentalis over winter on outdoor crops raises concerns that the species could in time become established on other outdoor crops

The effect of trap colour and aggregation pheromone
on trap catch of Frankliniella occidentalis and associated predators in protected pepper in Spain

Clare Sampson, J. G. C. Hamilton, William D. J. Kirk

School of Life Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, United Kingdom

Abstract: In a greenhouse experiment, there was a strong effect of colour on sticky trap catch of Frankliniella occidentalis in a sweet pepper crop. Blue traps attracted more thrips than yellow traps (×2.4), clear traps (×9.3), or black traps (×34.7). The F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, increased trap catch in inverse proportion to the attractiveness of the trap colour (blue ×1.3, yellow ×1.7, clear x1.9, black x3.4). It is proposed that in greenhouse crops, the most visually attractive trap colours are already catching a large proportion of the thrips present in the area surrounding each trap, so the addition of scent cannot increase trap catch by as much. The mirid predator Orius laevigatus was caught in low numbers on traps and showed no attraction to specific trap colours, the predatory thrips Aeolothrips tenuicornis was most frequent on yellow and blue traps and the staphylinid beetle Oxypoda exoleta was only found on black and clear traps. None of these predatory species were attracted to the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone which can therefore be used to enhance F. occidentalis trap catch without affecting natural enemy establishment.

Predatory mites double the economic injury level of Frankliniella occidentalis in strawberry

Clare Sampson . William D. J. Kirk

Received: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016
Ó The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

page3image3966272

Abstract The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) causes bronzing to strawberry fruit. Management of insecticide-resistant strains relies on the integration of predators with carefully timed use of the few insec- ticides available. Effective management requires bet- ter understanding of economic injury levels (EILs) and the factors that affect them. The densities of F. occidentalis and the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were manipulated in field experiments. All stages of flower and fruit were susceptible to thrips damage, but larvae caused nearly twice as much damage as adults per individual. The EIL was about four adult thrips per flower in the absence of predators, but increased to over eight at densities of N. cucumeris typical of good establishment in crops. The EIL could be increased by about 0.7 adult thrips per flower for every N. cucumeris per flower. The results were supported by measurements of EILs in commercial crops.

Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry

Clare Sampson*, William D. J. Kirk
Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology, School of Life Sciences, Keele University, Newcastle under Lyme, Staffordshire, United Kingdom

Abstract

The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers.

Optiroll Blue Range

Colour optimised sticky roller trap for control of various thrips species.

Thrips such as western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) cause severe damage in a range of crops and are one of the most economically important greenhouse pests. Understanding the biology of thrips and how they respond to environmental cues such as colour wavelengths has enabled Russell IPM to develop the Optiroll Blue series of sticky roller traps.
With increasing problems with pesticide resistance, biorational means of thrips control are resulting in the most promising management of the pest in greenhouses. Use of sticky traps in conjunction with predatory mites have proved effective in bringing western flower thrips under control. This strategy has shown increased financial returns with the added benefit of reducing pesticide use.

Impact Board Blue

Colour optimised sticky glue traps for control of various greenhouse pests

The Impact range of coloured sticky boards can attract and trap a broad spectrum of soft bodied insects including thrips such as western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Regular monitoring of the sticky traps makes early detection of infestation possible. Monitoring for pests should be at the forefront of pest management programmes, as early pest diagnosis will increase the likelihood of minimising damage and gaining maximum control.

Western Flower Thrips pheromone 

to be added, this USP of adding the pheromone lure to the programme (micro encapsulation etc etc )

Menu