Pheromones & Lures

The use of semiochemicals in pest management

Most insect pests communicate with members of their own species using semiochemical messages in order to find mates (sex pheromones (SP)), habitat and food sources (aggregation pheromones (AG)), to warn of danger (alarm pheromone (AGP)) and to avoid competition. Insect pests also use semiochemical cues produced by their host plants (kairomones (K)) in order to locate food sources.

In pest management we make use of semiochemicals to deliver highly specific decision-making as well as safe and effective pest control.  Different techniques include:

The use of semiochemicals has a number of advantages in pest management.  Pheromones are specific to the target pest, making them highly effective at controlling their behaviour while having limited effect on non-target organisms.  They are only required in minute quantities to be effective, are of low toxicity and they do not need to be applied to the crop. This makes them safe to use, safe for consumers and safe for the environment.

Pheromones, Lures and Traps

Lepidoptera – moths and butterflies

Expanded Overview of Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies)

Lepidoptera – moths and butterflies
Latin Name Common Name Lure Type Overview Products
Anarsia lineatella Peach twig borer moth SP The peach twig borer is a pest of stony fruits such as peaches, apricots, cherries and plums. It occurs in Europe and the west coast of the United States.
Young larvae bore into buds and developing shoots causing them to wilt and die. When populations are high, larval feeding in spring can cause substantial damage to trees. The number of generations for peach twig borers varies by climate and location; the first generation of larvae emerge from overwintering during the blooming period and migrate from protected crevices to feed on buds and new leaves. These larvae will eventually bore down a single shoot before returning to a protected place to pupate. Monitor using Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures in order to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme.
• Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
• Anarsia lineatellapheromone lure
Cameraria ohridella Horse-chestnut leaf miner SP The horse-chestnut leaf miner attacks trees in the Hippocastanaceae family, including a variety of horse chestnuts and buckeye. They are also known to feed on sycamore and maple. They occur in Europe and Asia. There are usually two generations a year, however four have been reported in warm conditions. Larvae mine the leaves of their host plant causing yellowing and browning of the leaflets, which eventually die. The pupae overwinter in these dead leaves. Trees may be totally defoliated the following year if the dead leaves are not removed in the Autumn. Adults should be monitored using Mothcatcher or Delta traps and  species-specific pheromones in order to time treatments effectively as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
• Cameraria ohridellapheromone lure
Chrysodeixis chalcites Tomato looper SP The tomato looper is polyphagous, attacking a wide variety of outdoor and greenhouse crops and weeds. Host plants include tomato, cauliflower, banana, fig, strawberry, cucumber, potato and wheat. It occurs in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. There can be eight to nine generations per year in warm conditions. Larvae roll, skeletonise and feed on entire leaves avoiding large leaf veins. Adults moths migrate into north-European countries but can exist year-round in greenhouses in these areas. Monitor adults using Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures in order to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
• Chrysodeixis chalcitespheromone lure
Cydalima perspectalis Box tree moth SP The box tree moth is a pest of box trees within the buxaceae family as well as some celastraceae species of tree. These trees are often found in homes and hotel grounds, historical gardens and churches. It occurs in Asia, Europe and North America and has spread through trade of infested host plants. There are three or more generations per year depending on environmental conditions. The larvae overwinter in  cocoons spun between its hosts leaves then emerge in spring. High numbers can cause complete defoliation and economic loss.  These pests should be monitored with pheromone traps weekly during months when adults are in flight in order to time treatments and reduce crop damage. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Cydalima perspectalis pheromone lure
Cydia pomonella Codling moth SP The codling moth is a major pest of apples, pears, plums, cherries, apricot, quince, macadamia, walnuts and chestnuts.  It occurs in Africa, Asia, Europe, America and Australia.  The larvae bore into fruits and attack the seeds, this causes the fruit to stop growing and to ripen quicky, which reults in reduced yield. These moths have one to three generations a year depending on the climate of the region they inhabit. Bore holes and larval frass are often easily visible in  the fruit. The codling moth should be monitored using Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures, monitoring weekly from petal fall until harvest. The treatment threshold is  five or more moths per trap per week from May to June in the UK. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Cydia pomonellapheromone lure
Duponchelia fovealis European pepper moth SP The European pepper moth is a pest of a range of fruit and ornamental plants in green house crops within Europe, such as orchid, pepper, strawberry, tomato, lettuce, celery and pomegranate. This moth also occurs in Africa, Asia and North America. Females lay around 200 eggs  in batches of five to ten close to the leaf veins of their host plants. After the larvae hatch, they feed on flowers and leaves then bore into the plants stem and continue down to ground level, in which time the plant can often collapse. The larvae also attack roots. There are one to two generations a year depending on their geographical location. Larvae pupate in soil and emerge as adult moths one to two weeks later.  Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures are an effective monitoring tool of adult moths in order to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Duponchelia fovealispheromone lure
Epiphyas postvittana Light brown apple moth SP The light brown apple moth has a wide host range of over 120 fruit, vegetable and ornamental plant species. Host plants include apple, pear, plum, strawberry, grape, potato and privet. They occur in Europe, North America and Oceania. The number of generations per year ranges from two to five according to temperature and host pant. Larvae feed on the surface layer of leaves under a protective layer of spun silk and leaves can be webbed together. Larvae also feed in fruits causing lesions and pitting, which causes economic damage. Monitor adults weekly from petal fall to the end of August using Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures.  The economic threshold for treatment is >30 moths per trap per week. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Epiphyas postvittana pheromone lure
Euzophera pinguis Tabby knot-horn moth SP The tabby knot-horn moth is an important pest of olive groves all over the Mediterranean, in particular Spain, Portugal and North Africa. The larvae overwinter within tree bark until spring. The young larvae then bore directly into a nearby stem and feed on the tree just below its surface layer. Young larvae have easier access to trees with pruning wounds and machinery damage. Mature larvae stay within the tree during pupation, with the emergence of the first generation of adults from late March to early June, making adult olive moths long-lived.  Females lay eggs singly or in small groups in bark crevices or accumulations of frass, Monitor adults using Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures in order to time treatments and reduce crop damage. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Euzophera pinguis pheromone lure
Grapholita molesta Oriental fruit moth SP The oriental fruit moth is one of the most important pests of stone fruits .  It occurs in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America and Oceania. Host plants include plum, cherry and apricot as well as hawthorn, quince and apple. There are between four to six generations per year depending on the climate. Populations build up rapidly in warmer springs and autumns. First generation larvae feed on shoots and may bore into fruitlets. Later generations cause damage by boring into fruit at the stem and by feed around the pit. Monitor adults using Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures in order to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Grapholita molesta pheromone lure
Helicoverpa armigera Cotton bollworm SP The cotton bollworm is polyphagous, attacking a wide variety of greenhouse and outdoor crops including: apple, cotton, chickpea, and tomato. It is widespread in Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, and Oceania. The number of generations varies from two to six depending on climatic conditions. In fruit, larvae bore into fruit near the  stem causing it to mature early and drop or causing secondary infection resulting in the fruit rot.  In grains, larvae invade cobs  and consume flowers. On cotton, caterpillars bore into buds and eat outwards. Pupae overwinter in cocoons in soil. Adults may migrate to warmer areas in winter. Monitor adults using Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures in order to time treatments and reduce crop damage. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Helicoverpa armigerapheromone lure
Lobesia botrana European grapevine moth SP The European grapevine moth occurs in Africa, Asia, North America, South America, and Europe. It most commonly attacks grapevine crops but has a wide variety of other host plants including, cheery, plumb and pomegranate. Larvae bore into grapes and secure the grapes with silk to avoid them dropping. In heavily infested areas 20 or 30 larvae may live on one cluster. Secondary infection of fruit causes fungal and acid rot. Larvae feed on leaves, shoots, and growing points on all host plants. The moth has one to four generations a year dependant on environmental conditions. Monitor adults using Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures in order to time treatments and reduce crop damage. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Lobesia botranapheromone lure
Lymantria dispar Gypsy moth SP The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a polyphagous pest and important defoliator of more than 500 species of broad-leaf and conifer trees and shrubs, including oak, apple, poplar, birch, spruce, pine and hawthorn, in Europe, Asia and North America. Females typically lay up to 1200 eggs on the trunks of hosts and once emerged, larvae feed on buds and new leaves. If left unmanaged, Lymantria dispar infestations cause mass defoliation amongst infested orchards which may result in widespread tree crop mortality. As the species exhibits cryptic behaviours and only produces one generation per year, using Mothcatcher and Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures, to monitor and reduce the number of sexually active adults, is essential to inform the timing of pesticide applications and to creating effective IPM programmes. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Lymantria dispar pheromone lure
Prays citri Citrus blossom moth SP Prays citri is an important pest of citrus, especially lemons and limes. It is common in the Mediterranean parts of Africa. Depending on conditions, citrus blossom moth can be present throughout the year, with the number of generations varying between 3 and 16. Females can lay between 60 and 160 eggs on citrus flowers and young fruit and upon hatching, larvae bore into these flowers and fruits; destroying flower organs, significantly reducing the number of flowers that can carry fruit and disfiguring product. This can result in >90% reduction in flower production, causing a significant yield loss. As citrus blossom moth is present all year round, monitoring for the pest is essential. Use Mothcatchers and Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures to monitor populations as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Prays citripheromone lure
Spodoptera frugiperda Fall armyworm SP The fall armyworm is a major pest of grains. It occurs in Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia and America, where it feeds on leaves, stems and seeds of over 350 host plants, causing major economic damage to maize, rice, sugar cane, sorgham and wheat as well as to vegetable crops.  In Africa and Asia, the ideal climate and abundant host plants can lead to massive outbreaks and complete crop loss.  There may be six or more generations of fall army worm per year. It is important to monitor adults using Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures in order to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Spodoptera frugiperdapheromone lure
Stenoma catenifer Avocado seed moth SP The avocado seed moth attacks fruits and seeds of the Lauraceae family including avocado and coyo. It occurs in central and South America. Females lay eggs at night on fruit pedicles or in crevices on the surface of fruit. The larvae pupate in soil or within the seed they were feeding on. One to eight larvae can be found feeding on one seed. Damage to fruit is easily visible, characteristics include bore holes containing frass, open and cracked fruit and white sugars that run down fruit from bore holes. Monitor adults using Mothcatcher or Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures in order to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Stenoma catenifer pheromone lure
Synanthedon myopaeformis Red-belted clearwing moth SP Synanthedon myopaeformis is a native of North Africa and Europe that has recently invaded North America. The red-belted clearwing is a destructive insect pest of top and stone fruit crops, most notably apples, pears, plums, quinces, cherries and apricots. Females lay up to 250 eggs within the bark of fruit trees and upon hatching, larvae feed on plant tissues beneath the bark which can lead to tree death. Severe infestations can build quickly and cause massive reductions in crop yield and treee death. Use Mothcatcher and Delta traps with species-specific pheromone lures for  monitoring in order to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Synanthedon myopaeformispheromone lure
Tecia solanivora  Potato tuber moth SP The potato tuber moth is a serious pest of potato in tropical and sub-tropical crops.  It occurs in Africa, Asia, the Americas and warmer parts of Europe. There may be seven to ten generations per year in optimal environmental conditions. The larvae hatch and build galleries in tubers (potatoes) eating their way further into the potato as they grow larger. The potato starts to turn black and rots as the larvae leaves food residue and frass behind.  Adults can be detected using traps and pheromones. It is advised to put out 16 pheromones and traps per hectare from planting to harvest, monitor traps in order to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Tecia solanivorapheromone lure
Thaumatotibia leucotreta False codling moth SP The false codling moth attacks the fruits, leaves and seeds of a variety of host plants, including pineapple, tea, peach, pepper, coffee, cotton, maize and pomegranate. It occurs in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. At night female moths lay approx. 100 to 400 eggs on the bolls (rounded seeds of cotton plants) or fruits of their host plants. Once hatched the larvae bore into their host. On citrus they mine beneath the surface and bore into the fruits to cause premature ripening. This in turn causes significant losses in crop yield. It is common to loose 10 to 20% of citrus in South Africa, where there are five generations per year.  Adults should be monitored using traps and pheromones in order to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Mothcatcher
• Mini Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
•  Thaumatotibia leucotretapheromone lure
Tuta absoluta Tomato leafminer moth SP The tomato leaf miner moth, Tuta absoluta, is primarily a pest of tomatoes but potatoes can also be infested. It is widespread in Europe,  Central and South Asia, and Africa, causing extensive economic damage. Females lay up to 260 eggs in their lifetime, hatching after about 7 days. The larvae feed by burrowing into  leaves and fruit causes visible burrows, die back and distortion to all parts of the plant. Up to 12 generations have been recorded per year. A variety of traps and pheromones are available for monitoring populations, mass trapping and for mating disruption. • Mini Mothcatcher
• Mothcatcher
• Delta traps
• Tuta absoluta pheromone lure
• Ferolite
• TutaRoll
• OptirollTuta+ (Black or Yellow)
• Magipal
Close
Latin Name Common Name Lure Type More Information
Anarsia lineatella Peach twig borer moth SP Find out more
Cameraria ohridella Horse-chestnut leaf miner SP Find out more
Chrysodeixis chalcites Tomato looper SP Find out more
Cydalima perspectalis Box tree moth SP Find out more
Cydia pomonella Codling moth SP Find out more
Duponchelia fovealis European pepper moth SP Find out more
Epiphyas postvittana Light brown apple moth SP Find out more
Euzophera pinguis Tabby knot-horn moth SP Find out more
Grapholita molesta Oriental fruit moth SP Find out more
Helicoverpa armigera Cotton bollworm SP Find out more
Lobesia botrana European grapevine moth SP Find out more
Lymantria dispar Gypsy moth SP Find out more
Prays citri Citrus blossom moth SP Find out more
Spodoptera frugiperda Fall armyworm SP Find out more
Stenoma catenifer Avocado seed moth SP Find out more
Synanthedon myopaeformis Red-belted clearwing moth SP Find out more
Tecia solanivora  Potato tuber moth SP Find out more
Thaumatotibia leucotreta False codling moth SP Find out more
Tuta absoluta Tomato leafminer moth SP Find out more

Coleoptera – beetles

Expanded Overview of Coleoptera (Beetles)

Coleoptera – beetles
Latin Name Common Name Lure Type Overview Products
Anthonomus eugenii Pepper weevil SP Pepper weevils attack plants in the family Solanaceae, including pepper, tomato and potato. It occurs in Central America, the Caribbean and the Southern United States and has spread to Europe.  Infestation can result in heavy crop losses in pepper crops. An adult female will lay five to seven eggs per day, totalling 341 on average. Larvae emerge after three to five days and bore into buds and fruit, then pupate within the fruit or blossom. Total development lasts 20-30 days. Adults survive for several months, and are able to fly long distances to find hosts. In optimal conditions pepper weevils have up to eight generations per year.  Adults should be monitored using yellow pepper weevil Impact traps with pheromones lures in order to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. • Pepper weevil Impact boards (yellow)
•  Anthonomus eugenii pheromone lure (PEPPER-XE)
Anthonomus rubi Strawberry blossom weevil AGP Strawberry blossom weevil is a native of Europe that feeds on plants of the Rosaceae family and is a major pest of strawberries and raspberries. Adult weevils feed on strawberry plant foliage and females oviposit eggs within developing flower buds (one egg per bud) before severing the stalk; larvae mature within the unopened buds and feed on wilting plant tissue. If left unmanaged, the Anthonomus rubi can result in up to 80% yield losses in soft fruit crops. Monitor and mass trap strawberry blossom weevil populations using a green cross-vane trap with a pheromone lure as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. •  Cross vane funnel trap
• Anthonomus rubi  pheromone lure
Diabrotica virgifera Western corn rootworm SP Diabrotica virgifera is one of the most important pests of maize, wheat, soyabean and cucurbits in North America. Corn rootworms cause millions of dollars of damage each year. During summer, adult western corn rootworms enter into open field crops and lay their eggs in the soil. Larvae cause the gretest damage by feeding on roots which can cause >15% crop losses. Adults feed on on corn silk, pollen and kernels.  Monitor adults using species-specific pheromone-baited yellow sticky traps to time treatments as part of an effective integrated pest management programme. •  Impact boards (yellow)
• Diabrotica virgifera pheromone lure
Close
Latin Name Common Name Lure Type More Information
Anthonomus eugenii Pepper weevil SP Find out more
Anthonomus rubi Strawberry blossom weevil AGP Find out more
Diabrotica virgifera Western corn rootworm SP Find out more

Diptera – flies

Expanded Overview of Diptera (Flies)

Diptera – flies
Latin Name Common Name Lure Type Overview Products
Bactrocera cucurbitae Melon fly PP Melon fruit flies are highly invasive insect pests occurring on more than 100 host species. If left untreated are capable of causing complete harvest failure in crops such as melon, squash, tomato, beans, aubergine, pepper and cucurbits. It has a prolific reproductive rate and year-round egg-laying (approximately 10 generations per year), making Bactrocera cucurbitae an important crop pest that must be monitored for and managed continuously. The implementation of Flycatcher traps or Tephri traps with Bactrocera cucurbitaeattractants to form the basis of an IPM strategy. • Flycatcher
• Tephri trap
• Femilure: Bactrocera cucurbitaefemale attractant
• Cuetrac: Bactrocera cucurbitaemale attractant
Bactrocera dorsalis Oriental fruit fly PP Bactrocera dorsalis is an extremely important pest of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables (>300 hosts) throughout its range (Asia, North America, Oceania & Africa).  It is capable of causing complete harvest failure in unprotected crops. The oriental fruit fly’s high reproductive rate (≈10 per year), distribution, impact and invasive ability mean that the species should be continuously monitored for and managed in regions where it is present. Use Flycatcher traps or Tephri traps with Bactrocera dorsalis attractants to monitor as part of an integrated pest management programme. • Flycatcher
• Tephri trap
• Torula Yeast: Bactrocera dorsalis female attractant
•Methyl eugenol: Bactrocera dorsalismale attractant
Bactrocera oleae Olive fruit fly SP Bactrocera oleae feeds exclusively on olives and is an extremely damaging pest in many of the areas of the Mediterranean Basin. The pest reproduces prolifically in olive groves and several generations can occur in one year. Olive fruit fly infestations can destroy table top olive crops and negatively impact the flavour of olives meant for olive oil production; tainting and massively reducing marketability of olive crops. In order to ensure olives retain their market value, Flycatcher traps or Tephri traps with Bactrocera oleae attractants should be used to monitor olive fruit fly as part of an effective IPM programme. • Flycatcher
• Tephri traps
• Femilure: Bactrocera oleae female attractant
• Olean: Bactrocera oleae male attractant
Bactrocera zonata Peach fruit fly PP Bactrocera zonata is distributed throughout Asia, the Middle East and Northeast Africa and causes severe damage of fruit and vegetable crops, including peach, guava, mango, citrus, apricots and figs. The species possesses a high reproductive rate and often outcompetes other fruit fly species. The peach fruit fly’s invasive and polyphagous behaviour cause crop losses from 25% to complete harvest failure. Monitoring and mass-trapping are essential for managing peach fruit fly. To ensure effective management, monitor using Flycatchers and Tephri traps  with Bactrocera zonata attractants aspart of an integrated pest management pogramme. • Flycatcher
• Tephri trap
• Femilure: Bactrocera zonta female attractant
• Methyl eugenol: Bactrocera zonta male attractant
Ceratitis capitata Mediterranean fruit fly PP The Mediterranean fruit fly is an  important pest of fruit crops globally but is particularly damaging to citrus, quince, apricot, plum, fig, mango, papaya and peach crops in the Mediterranean Basin. Ceratitis capitata females lay their eggs below the skin of their host’s fruits making juvenile life stages of the pest are difficult to control with pesticides. This can lead to complete harvest failure, especially in citrus and peach orchards.  Monitor fly numbers using Flycatcher traps or Tephri traps  with Ceratitis capitata attractants as part of an IPM programme. • Flycatcher
• Tephri traps
• Femilure: Ceratitis capitatafemale attractant
• Trimedlure:  Ceratitis capitata male attractant
Dasineura mali Apple leaf-curling midge SP The apple leaf-curling midge is a widespread pest of apple orchards. In recent years, the pest has spread across Europe, North America and New Zealand. Infestations stunt the growth of young trees, and can be difficult to detect without effective monitoring and management tools. As part of an IPM programme, monitor adults using Delta traps with Dasineura mali pheromone lures and Optiroll Super Plus (white-midge) for mass trapping. • Delta traps
• Optiroll Super Plus (white-midge)
• Dasineura mali pheromone lures
Dasineura oxycoccana Blueberry gall midge SP The blueberry gall midge is  native to North America and invasive in Asia and Europe. It is a highly specialised pest of Vaccinium crops, such as blueberries and cranberries. The pest targets newly developed buds, stunting growth and reducing crop yield, with severe attacks causing complete crop failure. Hidden within the buds, larvae are difficult to control using pesticides. Generations can reach 5-6 per year. As part of an IPM programme, monitor adults using Delta traps with the highly senstive Dasineura oxycoccana pheromone lures and Optiroll Super Plus (white-midge) for mass trapping. • Delta traps
• Optiroll Super Plus (white-midge)
• Dasineura oxycoccanapheromone lure
Dasineura plicatrix Blackberry leaf midge SP Dasineura plicatrix is widespead in Europe and North Africa and an important pest of blackberries, dewberries and raspberries. Adults of the species lay their eggs on developing leaves in May and June, the larvae then curl leaves to form a protective gall; distorting and stunting vegetative growth. Dependent on conditions, there may be at least 2 generations per year. Blackberry leaf midge has recently invaded North America, where the stunting of crop growth caused by the pest can result in crop yield losses in excess of 50% during the following season. As part of an IPM programme, monitor adults using Delta traps with Dasineura plicatrixpheromone lures and Optiroll Super Plus (white-midge) for mass trapping. •Delta  trap
•Optiroll Super Plus (White-midge)
• Dasineura plicatrixpheromone lure
Drosophila suzukii Spotted wing drosophila K Spotted wing drosophila occurs in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America and Oceania. It is a highly-invasive and destructive pest of soft fruit crops, such as cherries, blackberries, nectarines, apricots, plums, strawberries, peaches and raspberries. Adults lay their young within the tissue of soft fruits, with an average of 13 generations occurring per year. The larvae are difficult to target with pesticides and are massively destructive, often causing between 50-80% reductions in yield and complete crop failure if left unchecked. Russell IPM offer a variety of traps and lures for monitoring and mass trapping as well as a general repellent as part of a push-pull strategy. • Optiroll Red
• Red suzukii trap
• Red Impact boards
• SWD blister pack
• MaxDro
• Magipal
Close
Latin Name Common Name Lure Type More Information
Bactrocera cucurbitae Melon fly PP Find out more
Bactrocera dorsalis Oriental fruit fly PP Find out more
Bactrocera oleae Olive fruit fly SP Find out more
Bactrocera zonata Peach fruit fly PP Find out more
Ceratitis capitata Mediterranean fruit fly PP Find out more
Dasineura mali Apple leaf-curling midge SP Find out more
Dasineura oxycoccana Blueberry gall midge SP Find out more
Dasineura plicatrix Blackberry leaf midge SP Find out more
Drosophila suzukii Spotted wing drosophila K Find out more

Hemiptera – true bugs

Expanded Overview of Hemiptera (True Bugs)

Hemiptera – true bugs
Latin Name Common Name Lure Type Overview Products
Aonidiella aurantii California red scale SP The California red scale is a major insect pest of roses, olives, passion and citrus fruits worldwide. Infestations can cause serious reduction in fruit quality, reducing future marketable yield. The pest can cause complete harvest loss and as such, thresholds for pesticide programmes may be as low as 1 female for every 2 fruit in citrus crops. Effective monitoring can be achieved using California Red Scale Sticky Trap (yellow), Impact boards (white) with Aonidiella aurantii pheromone lures, and managed using Magipal as part of a successful IPM programme. • California Red Scale Sticky Trap (yellow)
• Impact boards (white)
• Aonidiella aurantiipheromone lure
Diaphorina citri Asian citrus psyllid (no lure) The Asian citrus psyllid is a sap-sucking insect pest of citrus, and a vector of citrus greening disease (CGD). CGD is a bacterial disease that causes infected trees to produce green, misshapen and bitter fruit; massively reducing the marketability of crops for use as fresh fruit or juice. Most citrus trees die after initial infection. Diaphorina citri infestations can expand rapidly as females are capable of producing an average of 800 eggs and there may be as many as 10 generations of winged adults per year. Asian citrus psyllid also causes citrus defoliation and fruitlet and blossom drop. This serious pest of citrus should be continuously monitored using green Impact boards. • Impact boards green
Halyomorpha halys  Brown marmorated stink bug AGP Brown marmorated stink bugs are invasive sucking insects that cause serious economic damage to a wide range of fruit, grain and vegetable crops. Serious infestations of this polyphagous pest have resulted in 25-90% crop losses in apple, peach, sweetcorn, pepper, tomato, maize and soyabean crops within the last decade. Halyomorpha halys is multivoltine, producing up to 5 generations per year. Additionally, thresholds for the insect are extremely low (2 per row foot / 5 per 15 sweep nets) as its feeding behaviour causes ‘cat-facing’ or seed failure; ensuring crops are unmarketable. As such, monitor this destructive pest using Cross Vane Funnel or Delta traps with Halyomorpha halys  aggregation pheromone lures as part of an integrated pest management programme. • Cross vane funnel traps
•  Delta traps
Halyomorpha halys pheromone lure
Planococcus citri Citrus mealybug SP Citrus mealybugs (Planococcus citri) is primarily a pest of citrus, although it has been found on 27 other species of plant.  Infestations can cause 75% reductions in marketable crop product and fatally damage crop plants. Mealybugs can produce 4-10 generations per year. Mealybug populations have developed resistances to insecticides. Monitor the number of winged males using Delta traps with Planococcus citri pheromone lures. •  Delta traps
•  Planococcus citri pheromone lure
Planococcus ficus
Planoccocus citri
Vine mealybug SP The vine mealybug is foud in Southern Europe, the Middle East, Southern US and Southern Africa on grapes, figs and pomegranets. It feeds on sap in roots, stems, leaves and fruit, causing deformation, stunting and leaf yellowing and can vector virus disease.  It can cause econmic damage at low population densities. Mealybugs can produce 4-10 generations per year and this prolific reproductive and are difficult to target using chemical insecticides. Monitor the number of winged males using Impact boards with Planococcus ficus pheromone lures. In order to manage this group of pests, monitor and reduce the number of winged males entering / within crops by using Delta traps with Planococcus ficus pheromone lure. • Delta traps
• Planococcus ficus pheromone lure
Close
Latin Name Common Name Lure Type More Information
Aonidiella aurantii California red scale SP Find out more
Diaphorina citri Asian citrus psyllid (no lure) Find out more
Halyomorpha halys  Brown marmorated stink bug AGP Find out more
Planococcus citri Citrus mealybug SP Find out more
Planococcus ficus Vine mealybug SP Find out more

Thysanoptera – thrips

Expanded Overview of Thysanoptera (Thrips)

Thysanoptera – thrips
Latin Name Common Name Lure Type Overview Products
Frankliniella occidentalis Western flower thrips AGP Frankliniella occidentalis is a worldwide polyphagous pest, attacking a wide range of vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops in protected and outdoor crops, incuding pepper, cucumber, strawberry, raspberry. The spread of western flower thrips can be attributed to the species highly polyphagous and host alternating behaviours (>240 known hosts) and ability to develop resistance to insecticides. Larval and adult feeding vectors disease and bronzes the surface of fruit and petals. Entire crops may be left unmarketable unless infestations are managed. Mass-monitoring products such as patterned Optiroll blue with a species-specific aggregation pheromone, or push-pull strategies combining Magipal with traps can reduce western flower thrips numbers and crop damage.  A range of traps can be used for monitoring incluing blue or yellow sticky traps and Ferolite water traps. • Optiroll Blue (Super, Plus)
• Impact boards (blue or yellow)
•Frankliniella occidentalis aggregation pheromone
•Ferolite trap
• MagiPal
Thrips tabaci and other Thripsspecies Onion thrips and other thrips species from the family Thripidae (no lure) Thrips are a highly polyphagous group of organisms containing many important pest species. Thrips are characterised by their prolific reproductive behaviours and ability to develop resistances to insecticides. Thrips vector a range of important crop diseases and their feeding habits damage the fruit, leaves and petals of crops, often making such product unmarketable. Due to widespread resistance, IPM programmes represent the most effective way of managing thrips. Mass-monitoring products such as patterned Optiroll yellow, blue or white  and Magipal may be used to significantly reduce thrips infestations. • Impact bloards (blue or yellow)
• Optiroll (blue or yellow)
• MagiPal
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Latin Name Common Name Lure Type More Information
Frankliniella occidentalis Western flower thrips AGP Find out more
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